1789 The U.S. Department of Foreign Affairs changed its name to the Department of State.
1829 Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and El Salvador gained independence.
1835 Charles Darwin and the HMS Beagle reached the Galapagos Islands.
1917 Alexander Kerensky proclaimed Russia a republic.
1935 The Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of their citizenship and made the Swastika the official emblem of Nazi Germany.
1963 A church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, killed four young black girls.
1989 Pulitzer Prize-winning author Robert Penn Warren, the first poet laureate of the United States, died.
2004 The National Hockey League lockout began. The 2004-2005 season would ultimately be canceled.