1642 The English Civil War began between supporters of King Charles I (Royalists or Cavaliers) and those of Oliver Cromwell (Roundheads).
1775 King George III proclaimed the American colonies to be in open rebellion.
1846 The United States annexed New Mexico.
1851 The U.S. yacht America outraced the British Aurora off the English coast to win a trophy that became known as the America’s Cup.
1902 Theodore Roosevelt became the first United States president to ride in an automobile.
1910 Korea was annexed by Japan after five years as a protectorate.
1989 Black Panther co-founder Huey P. Newton was shot to death in Oakland, Calif.
2003 Alabama’s chief justice, Roy Moore, was suspended for refusing to move a Ten Commandments monument from the state courthouse.
2004 A version of Edvard Munch’s painting The Scream was stolen in Norway. Another version had been stolen in 1994.