1624 Cardinal Richelieu was named chief minister of France by king Louis XIII.
1851 Issac Singer patented the sewing machine.
1865 British surgeon Joseph Lister became the first doctor to use an antiseptic during surgery.
1898 Hawaii was formally annexed to the United States.
1898 A peace protocol ending the Spanish-American War was signed.
1972 The last American combat troops left Vietnam.
1985 In the world’s worst single-aircraft disaster, a Japan Air Lines 747 crashed into Mount Osutaka, killing 520 of the 524 aboard.
1998 Swiss banks agreed to pay $1.25 billion to settle lawsuits brought by Holocaust survivors and their heirs. The banks had kept millions of dollars deposited by Holocaust victims before and during World War II.
2000 The Russian military submarine, Kursk, and its crew were lost in the Barents Sea.
2004 N.J. governor James McGreevey announced his resignation.
2013 Notorious Boston gangster James (Whitey) Bulger was found guilty of 31 of the 32 charges he faced, including murder, extortion, money laundering, drug dealing and possession of weapons.